Scientists create world’s thinnest gold – and it’s just two atoms thick
Scientists have created a new form of gold which is 0.47 nanometres thick – one million times thinner than a human finger nail.
The material is regarded as 2D because it comprises just two layers of atoms sitting on top of one another, so there are no “bulk” atoms hidden beneath the surface.
The material could have wide-scale applications in the medical device and electronics industries, according to the team of researchers from the University of Leeds.
It could also be used as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions in a range of industrial processes.
Laboratory tests show that the ultra-thin gold is 10 times more efficient as a catalytic substrate than the currently used gold nanoparticles.
These are 3D materials with the majority of atoms residing in the bulk rather than at the surface.
Scientists believe the new material could also form the basis of artificial enzymes that could be applied in rapid, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests and in water purification systems.
The flakes are also flexible, meaning they could form the basis of electronic components for bendable screens, electronic inks and transparent conducting displays.
“This work amounts to a landmark achievement,” said lead author Dr Sunjie Ye, from Leeds’ Molecular and Nanoscale Physics Group and the Leeds Institute of Medical Research.
“Not only does it open up the possibility that gold can be used more efficiently in existing technologies, it is providing a route which would allow material scientists to develop other 2D metals.
“This method could innovate nanomaterial manufacturing.”
The research team are looking to work with industry on ways of scaling-up the process.
Synthesising the gold nanosheet takes place in an aqueous solution and starts with chloroauric acid, an inorganic substance that contains gold.
It is reduced to its metallic form in the presence of a “confinement agent” – a chemical that encourages the gold to form as a sheet, just two atoms thick.
Because of the gold’s nanoscale dimensions, it appears green in water – and given its shape, the researchers describe it as gold nanoseaweed.
Professor Stephen Evans, head of the Leeds Molecular and Nanoscale Research Group who supervised the research, said the considerable gains that could be achieved from using these ultra-thin gold sheets are down to their high surface-area to volume ratio.
“Gold is a highly effective catalyst. Because the nanosheets are so thin, just about every gold atom plays a part in the catalysis. It means the process is highly efficient,” he said.
“Our data suggests that industry could get the same effect from using a smaller amount of gold, and this has economic advantages when you are talking about a precious metal.”